No, not in the current version. I don't know if the devs plan on adding support later on for embedding custom icons or not.
I know it's possible to change the window title with a line of Lua script. Also according to the SDL2 documentation there is parameters for changing the displayed window icon (while game is running), but it's not implemented into the source code or as a Lua function as far as I'm aware.
I really don't know anything much about how android stuff works as I've not got any devices for testing on.