PHYSICS
Exam questions in physics will be based on the following book:
https://openstax.org/details/books/physics
CHEMISTRY
BASIC LITERATURE: “Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry”, 12th or 13th (Global) Edition by Karen C. Timberlake.
Candidates should be familiar with the following concepts:
• States of matter. Basic characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases.
• Names and symbols of relatively common periodic table elements as well as polyatomic ions.
• Periodic table of chemical elements and definitions of: atomic mass, atomic number, subatomic particles, nucleus, isotopes, groups, periods, electronegativity, atomic size, ionization energies, valence electrons, octet rule, the periodicity of properties of the elements.
• Chemical compounds and their bonds: octet rule, ionic compounds, covalent compounds.
• Examples and chemical formulas of inorganic acids, bases, and salts, metal and nonmetal oxides.
• Types of chemical reactions (combination, decomposition, single and double displacement).
• Bases of chemical calculations: atomic mass, molecular weight, and the mol.
• Stoichiometry of chemical reaction.
• Oxidation-reduction reactions.
• Properties of solution. The solubility of the substance.
• Ways of the expressing of solutions concentrations (percent concentration, molarity, definitions, units, and calculations).
• Electrolytic dissociation. Ionization of water. The pH scale. Hydrolysis.
• Role, composition, and examples of buffer solutions.
• Nuclear chemistry – half lives, basic types of radiation.
• Structures and properties of the major organic compounds. Functional groups. Chirality. Isomerism. Hydrocarbons, carbohydrates (monosaccharides, glycosides, oligo- and polysaccharides), lipids, nitrogen-containing compounds (amino acids and heterocyclic compounds), peptides and proteins.
MATHEMATICS
The scope of material for the exam in Mathematics can be found below. The difficulty level of the exam is mixed and may reach the IB diploma, Standard Level.
Basic literature:
https://www.cambridge.org/ws/education/subject/mathematics/cambridge-igcse-mathematics-2nd-edition/cambridge-igcse-mathematics-2nd-edition-core-and-extended-coursebook?isbn=9781108437189&format=PB#contents
Number
Routine use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, using integers, decimals and fractions, including order of operations.
Simple positive exponents.
Simplification of expressions involving roots (surds or radicals).
Prime numbers and factors, including greatest common divisors and least common multiples.
Simple applications of ratio, percentage and proportion, linked to similarity.
Definition and elementary treatment of absolute value (modulus), ǀ a ǀ .
Rounding, decimal approximations and significant figures, including appreciation of errors.
Expression of numbers in standard form (scientific notation), that is, a ×10^{k} , 1≤ a <10.
Sets and numbers
Concept and notation of sets, elements, universal (reference) set, empty (null) set, complement, subset, equality of sets, disjoint sets.
Operations on sets: union and intersection.
Commutative, associative and distributive properties.
Venn diagrams.
Number systems: natural numbers; integers; rationals and irrationals; real numbers.
Intervals on the real number line using set notation and using inequalities. Expressing the solution set of a linear inequality on the number line and in set notation.
Mappings of the elements of one set to another. Illustration by means of sets of ordered pairs, tables, diagrams and graphs.
Algebra
Manipulation of simple algebraic expressions involving factorization and expansion, including quadratic expressions.
Rearrangement, evaluation and combination of simple formulae. Examples from other subject areas, particularly the sciences, should be included.
The linear function and its graph, gradient and y-intercept.
Addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions.
The properties of order relations: <, ≤, >, ≥ .
Solution of equations and inequalities in one variable, including cases with rational coefficients.
Solution of simultaneous equations in two variables.
Trigonometry
Angle measurement in degrees. Compass directions and three figure bearings.
Right-angle trigonometry. Simple applications for solving triangles.
Pythagoras’ theorem and its converse.
Geometry
Simple geometric transformations: translation, reflection, rotation, enlargement. Congruence and similarity, including the concept of scale factor of an enlargement.
The circle, its centre and radius, area and circumference. The terms “arc”, “sector”, “chord”, “tangent” and “segment”.
Perimeter and area of plane figures. Properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, including parallelograms, rhombuses, rectangles, squares, kites and trapeziums (trapezoids); compound shapes.
Volumes of prisms, pyramids, spheres, cylinders and cones.
Coordinate geometry
Elementary geometry of the plane, including the concepts of dimension for point, line, plane and space. The equation of a line in the form y = mx + c .
Parallel and perpendicular lines, including m_{1} = m_{2} and m_{1} m_{2} = −1.
Geometry of simple plane figures.
The Cartesian plane: ordered pairs (x, y) , origin, axes.
Mid-point of a line segment and distance between two points in the Cartesian plane and in three dimensions.
Statistics and probability
Descriptive statistics: collection of raw data; display of data in pictorial and diagrammatic forms, including pie charts, pictograms, stem and leaf diagrams, bar graphs and line graphs.
Obtaining simple statistics from discrete and continuous data, including mean, median, mode, quartiles, range, interquartile range.
Calculating probabilities of simple events.
[source: IB Mathematics SL guide]
BIOLOGY
BASIC LITERATURE: ‘Cambridge IGCSE & O Level, Complete Biology’ 4^{th} Edition by Ron Pickering
Candidates should be familiar with the following concepts:
- Characteristics and classification of living organisms (Fungi, plants, invertebrate animals, vertebrate animals, protoctists, prokaryotes, viruses)
- Movement in and out of cells (diffusion, osmosis, active transport)
- Biological molecules
- Enzymes control biochemical reactions in living organisms
- Photosynthesis and plant nutrition
- Nutrition (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water, fibre)
- Malnutrition
- Transport systems in plants and animals
- Diseases and immunity (pathogenes and organisms that cause disease)
- Antibodies and the immune response
- Respiration (gas exchange process, smoking, diseases)
- Excretion
- Homeostasis
- Nervous system (central nervous system, neurons, receptor and senses)
- Endocrine system
- Tropisms
- Antibiotics
- Reproduction in plants
- Reproduction in humans (the menstrual cycle, conception, pregnancy, birth, sexually transmitted diseases
- Variation and inheritance (DNA, cell division, natural selection, artificial selection)
- Ecology and ecosystems
- Food chains and food webs
- Population (factors affecting population size)
- Damage of ecosystem (pollution) and conservation of resources (recycling)
- Biotechnology (genetic engineering)